Wto Agreement On Agriculture Domestic Support

By محمد راستگو,

  Filed under: دسته‌بندی نشده
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Domestic support regimes for agriculture are governed by the agriculture agreement, which came into force in 1995 and was negotiated during the Uruguay Round (1986-1994). The long-term goal of the AoA is to establish a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system and to initiate a reform process through negotiations on promised commitments and safeguards and by defining more effective and operationally effective rules and disciplines. Agriculture is therefore special, because the sector has its own agreement, the provisions of which are given priority. All national support measures for agricultural producers that do not fall into one of the above exempt categories are subject to reduction obligations. This category of national support covers measures such as market price support measures, direct production subsidies or input subsidies. However, under the de minimis provisions of the agreement, it is not necessary to reduce this domestic support which distorts trade during a year when the total value of product-specific support does not exceed 5% of the total value of the production of the product concerned. In addition, non-product-specific aid, which accounts for less than 5% of the total value of agricultural production, is also excluded from the reduction. The 5% threshold applies to industrialized countries, while the de minimis limit for developing countries is 10%. Some countries say they want to check the national subsidies that are listed in the green box because they think that some of them could have an impact on production or prices under certain circumstances. Others have said that the green box should not be changed because it is already satisfactory. Some say the green box should be expanded to cover additional types of subsidies.

(۱) The national export support and subsidy commitments in Part IV of the list of Member States are commitments to limit subsidies and are an integral part of the 1994 GATT. The agricultural agreement contains a number of general and specific criteria for including measures in the green box (Annex 2). These measures are excluded from reduction obligations and can even be increased without financial limitation under the WTO. The green box applies to both members of developed and developing countries, but in the case of developing countries, special treatment is given to national food security storage programmes and subsidized food prices for the urban and rural poor. The general criteria are that the measures must not have any effects or effects on production, or at most a minimum of trade distortion. They must be made available through a public programme (including the abandonment of government revenues) which does not involve consumer transfers and should not lead to price support for producers. These aids are subject to restrictions: minimum de minimis aid is allowed (as a rule, 5% of agricultural production for industrialized countries, 10% for developing countries); Thirty-two WTO members who, at the beginning of the post-Uruguay Round reform period, had subsidies higher than de minimis values, pledged to reduce these subsidies.

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