The second reason is that traditional trade theory is primarily focused on border measures. Nevertheless, commercial costs are influenced by many other measures, including domestic regulation. These non-tariff measures have gained importance with the removal of traditional barriers and cross-border value chains have proven to be the main driver of trade. The regulation responds (or should) to cases of market failure and good regulation is (or should) be supported by a calculation of the costs and benefits of an intervention. For this reason, there is no automatic reason to believe that a reduction in regulation, unlike the reduction of tariffs or quotas, will necessarily promote the well-being of citizens. To give an example, the UN Economic Commission for the European Forum on the Harmonization of Vehicle Rules looks as uns glamorous as its title is heavy. However, his work focuses on issues as detailed and essential as vehicle noise and braking and landing gear standards. It seeks to harmonize regulatory approaches for trade in order to reduce trade barriers. What is the impact of this context on the UK`s post-Brexit ambitions to negotiate new bilateral trade agreements around the world? Both the creation of trade and the diversion of trade have a decisive impact on the establishment of a free trade agreement.
The creation of trade will result in a shift in consumption from a cost producer to a low-cost producer, which will lead to an expansion of trade. On the other hand, trade diversion will mean that trade will move from a low-cost producer outside the zone to a more expensive producer in the free trade agreement.  Such offshoring will not benefit consumers under the free trade agreement, which will be deprived of the opportunity to purchase cheaper imported goods. However, economists note that trade diversion does not always harm the overall national well-being: it can even improve national well-being as a whole if the volume of misappropriated trade is low.  The Global Enabling Trade Report measures the factors, policies and services that facilitate cross-border trade in goods and destinations. The index summarizes four sub-indexes, namely market access; Border management Transportation and communication infrastructure and the business environment. In 2016, the 30 most important countries and territories were: Trade agreements take place when two or more nations agree on trade terms between them. They set tariffs and tariffs on imports and exports by countries. All trade agreements influence international trade. Most economists would recommend that even developing countries set their tariffs at a fairly low level, but economist Ha-Joon Chang, a proponent of industrial policy, believes that higher levels in developing countries could be justified because the productivity gap between them and developed nations is now much larger than what developed nations experienced when they were at a similar level of technological development. Underdeveloped nations are now, Chang believes, weak players in a much more competitive system.
  The arguments against Chang`s view are that developing countries are capable of importing foreign technologies, while developed countries themselves have had to develop new technologies and developing countries can sell in export markets much richer than any that existed in the 19th century.